If you need help, please call and one of our service representatives will be happy to assist you. You are an American Girl Rewards Member now. Three tiers. Premium perks. More than ever before. Read reviews 97 Write a review. In stock. Frequent urination and thirst are signs of low blood sugar 13 13 Tight elastic hose or socks are not bad for diabetics 19 7 A diabetic diet consists mostly of special foods 17 9.
High scores indicate that individuals are experiencing emotional distress in relation to living with diabetes. This instrument was altered by excluding Item no. I have no clear plan for the long term control of my diabetes 4. I feel discouraged about the treatment of my diabetes 4. I feel anxious when I think about living with my diabetes 4.
Unpleasant social situations can come from living with diabetes for instance, others telling me what to eat 4. I have the feeling that I should miss food and meals 4. I feel depressed when I think about living with diabetes 3. I have the feeling that my diabetes is controlling my life 4.
I am worried about low blood sugar levels 4. I am angry when I think about living with diabetes 3.
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I am worried about food and meals all the time 4. I am worried about the future and the risk of suffering from serious problems because of having diabetes 3. I have the feeling that friends and family are not supporting my efforts to control my diabetes 4. I feel guilty or worried when my diabetes gets out of control 3. I feel left alone with my diabetes 4. The Hopkins Scale Checklist - 25 HSC [ 32 ], was used as a psychosocial screening measure with 10 items for symptoms of anxiety and 15 items for symptoms of depression.
The cut-off point for the HSCL was 1. Suddenly scared for no reason 2. Feeling fearful 2.
Faintness, dizziness, or weakness 1. Nervousness or shakiness inside 1. Heart pounding or racing 1. Trembling 2.
Feeling tense or keyed up 1. Headaches 1. Spells of terror or panic 2. Feeling low in energy, slowed down 1. Blaming yourself for things 1. Crying easily 2. Loss of sexual interest or pleasure 1. Poor appetite 2. Difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep 1. Feeling hopeless about the future 2. Feeling blue 2. Feeling lonely 2. Thoughts of ending your life 2. Feeling of being trapped or caught 2. Worrying too much about things 1. Feeling no interest in things 2. Feeling everything is an effort 1. Feelings of worthlessness 3. Qualitative measures Of the themes from the structured interviews with PLWD, 5 of the 9 themes demonstrated high to moderate levels of self-efficacy, as described in SCT: [ 15 — 17 ] these included seeking initial diagnosis; dialoguing with others about having diabetes stigma ; social support and raising public awareness; coping with sick days; seeking alternative therapy herbalists , and seeking on going treatment.
Self-efficacy was high for the majority of the group who were open about talking to family, friends and members of the community about diabetes for a number of reasons: for transport, for care, when socialising to explain why they did not take sugar in their diet , telling others to raise awareness of diabetes. People used a number of different strategies to cope when they felt ill, one third reported that they took medication, a little under a third went to the hospital; to see the doctor or to have their blood glucose checked and their medication altered, some rested, took fluids and ate some food.
The decision not to seek alternative therapy herbalists revealed high levels of self-efficacy. Some had never consulted a herbalist 13 out By contrast 6 out of 20 people admitted to having consulted a herbalist but stated that the treatment was unsuccessful; At least one person admitted to being flexible about using a herbalist, although doctors had advised against this. Only three people in the group admitted that they only went for a diabetic check-up when they felt ill. During treatment the relationship with health care-workers was described positively as a good or very good relationship.
Health care workers were further described as kind, respectful and helpful and some were thankful for the care they received. This was contrary to the findings in the PAID questionnaire, item Lower levels of self - efficacy were noted by a number of participants. The majority of people expressed negative emotions at the diagnosis of diabetes, ranging from anger, shock, sadness and sorrow to worry.
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One person was relieved with the diagnosis of diabetes, as prior to this diagnosis he thought that he was HIV positive and was going to die. Another person on learning that she had diabetes felt free from the anxiety of not knowing why she felt ill. Only two people reported explaining things to the doctor and one reported asking for their blood sugar levels so they could give this result to family members. One person commented on being given advice. The ability to work, travel and socialise was mentioned by eight people. For twenty-two PLWD the physical impact of living with diabetes was mentioned including weakness, fatigue, reduced levels of energy, pain, reduced mobility, loss of independence and the effects of reduced eye sight.
Some of the group were aware that following instructions about diet and medication was important and that not following this advice had negative consequences. This had resulted in a loss of personal freedom. They found this difficult and it made them feel unhappy. Of the group 18 people specifically mentioned having to change their diet. Of these 11 people said that listening to what the doctor said about changing diet was important and 8 people mentioned that they had to eat what they had been instructed to eat by the doctor. Reduction of carbohydrate intake was specifically mentioned 14 although only one person mentioned foods such as bread, rice and ugali maize meal.
Only two people mentioned the principle of eating a healthy diet. There were signs of DR in 9 of those whose were screened; dot blot haemorrhages, cotton wool spots, exudates. In one case there was also cataract in the other eye. Reasons given for not previously being screened for DR included: cost—2 2. Moderate visual impairment Severe visual impairment Diabetic retinopathy Cataract Health services In the structured interview, PLWD spoke positively about their relationship with the health care workers caring for them, yet the PAID scale revealed a different picture.
Education, knowledge Burgess in his discussion on the emerging epidemic of diabetes in SSA calls for the education and empowerment of patients as an important part of disease management [ 39 ]. Uptake of screening for DR Previous research conducted on the uptake of eye health service in Kilimanjaro show many barriers exist [ 40 ].
Low self-efficacy For most of the group the diagnosis of diabetes demonstrated low levels of SE. Stigma Diabetes related stigma has received little attention worldwide [ 43 ] and none in Africa. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic. BMJ Open. Planning and developing services for diabetic retinopathy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Health Policy Manag. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral. I think that I am able to keep to my diet when I am having a party.
I think that I am able to keep to my diet if I am stressed or tense. I never did any testing of his blood myself; but took him to my vet occasionally to do a glucose check. I even taught my almost year old son to give him shots when we had to be gone, so we could avoid boarding him, as he became more stressed there as he got older.
Yes, it is a lifestyle change, but when you love them, you do what you need to! I had a cat diagnosed with diabetes some years ago. My fear was giving insulin since I had a fear of needles. Once I did it a few times it became easy and I think the cat knew it made him feel better so he came easily when it was time for a shot. Was careful to buy foods with good protein avoid foods that get protein from gluten and low carbs. I worked close to home so was able to run home if need be to keep him on a regular schedule for shots and eating.
Also had a blood moniter that I used about once of week that was harder then the shots which may have saved him since it alerted me to when he was reverting. It did result in finally being able to control his diabetes with food and stopped the insulin. He was when this happened and he ended up living to almost 19 years of age.
Thanks for the informative post. I always feared one of my cats getting diabetes.