It might seem that the Greek version of the Bible, by translating "be established" as "understand", profoundly altered the meaning of the text by moving away from the biblical notion of trust in God towards a Greek notion of intellectual understanding. Yet this translation, while certainly reflecting a dialogue with Hellenistic culture, is not alien to the underlying spirit of the Hebrew text. Saint Augustine took up this synthesis of the ideas of "understanding" and "being established" in his Confessions when he spoke of the truth on which one may rely in order to stand fast: "Then I shall be cast and set firm in the mould of your truth".
Read in this light, the prophetic text leads to one conclusion: we need knowledge, we need truth, because without these we cannot stand firm, we cannot move forward. Faith without truth does not save, it does not provide a sure footing. It remains a beautiful story, the projection of our deep yearning for happiness, something capable of satisfying us to the extent that we are willing to deceive ourselves. Either that, or it is reduced to a lofty sentiment which brings consolation and cheer, yet remains prey to the vagaries of our spirit and the changing seasons, incapable of sustaining a steady journey through life.
If such were faith, King Ahaz would be right not to stake his life and the security of his kingdom on a feeling. Today more than ever, we need to be reminded of this bond between faith and truth, given the crisis of truth in our age. In contemporary culture, we often tend to consider the only real truth to be that of technology: truth is what we succeed in building and measuring by our scientific know-how, truth is what works and what makes life easier and more comfortable.
Nowadays this appears as the only truth that is certain, the only truth that can be shared, the only truth that can serve as a basis for discussion or for common undertakings. Yet at the other end of the scale we are willing to allow for subjective truths of the individual, which consist in fidelity to his or her deepest convictions, yet these are truths valid only for that individual and not capable of being proposed to others in an effort to serve the common good. But Truth itself, the truth which would comprehensively explain our life as individuals and in society, is regarded with suspicion.
Surely this kind of truth — we hear it said — is what was claimed by the great totalitarian movements of the last century, a truth that imposed its own world view in order to crush the actual lives of individuals. In the end, what we are left with is relativism, in which the question of universal truth — and ultimately this means the question of God — is no longer relevant.
It would be logical, from this point of view, to attempt to sever the bond between religion and truth, because it seems to lie at the root of fanaticism, which proves oppressive for anyone who does not share the same beliefs. In this regard, though, we can speak of a massive amnesia in our contemporary world.
The question of truth is really a question of memory, deep memory, for it deals with something prior to ourselves and can succeed in uniting us in a way that transcends our petty and limited individual consciousness. It is a question about the origin of all that is, in whose light we can glimpse the goal and thus the meaning of our common path. This being the case, can Christian faith provide a service to the common good with regard to the right way of understanding truth?
To answer this question, we need to reflect on the kind of knowledge involved in faith. Here a saying of Saint Paul can help us: "One believes with the heart" Rom In the Bible, the heart is the core of the human person, where all his or her different dimensions intersect: body and spirit, interiority and openness to the world and to others, intellect, will and affectivity. If the heart is capable of holding all these dimensions together, it is because it is where we become open to truth and love, where we let them touch us and deeply transform us.
Faith transforms the whole person precisely to the extent that he or she becomes open to love. Through this blending of faith and love we come to see the kind of knowledge which faith entails, its power to convince and its ability to illumine our steps. Faith knows because it is tied to love, because love itself brings enlightenment.
The explanation of the connection between faith and certainty put forward by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein is well known. For Wittgenstein, believing can be compared to the experience of falling in love: it is something subjective which cannot be proposed as a truth valid for everyone. Love is seen as an experience associated with the world of fleeting emotions, no longer with truth. But is this an adequate description of love? Love cannot be reduced to an ephemeral emotion. True, it engages our affectivity, but in order to open it to the beloved and thus to blaze a trail leading away from self-centredness and towards another person, in order to build a lasting relationship; love aims at union with the beloved.
Here we begin to see how love requires truth. Only to the extent that love is grounded in truth can it endure over time, can it transcend the passing moment and be sufficiently solid to sustain a shared journey. If love is not tied to truth, it falls prey to fickle emotions and cannot stand the test of time. True love, on the other hand, unifies all the elements of our person and becomes a new light pointing the way to a great and fulfilled life. Without truth, love is incapable of establishing a firm bond; it cannot liberate our isolated ego or redeem it from the fleeting moment in order to create life and bear fruit.
If love needs truth, truth also needs love. Love and truth are inseparable. The truth we seek, the truth that gives meaning to our journey through life, enlightens us whenever we are touched by love. One who loves realizes that love is an experience of truth, that it opens our eyes to see reality in a new way, in union with the beloved.
In this sense, Saint Gregory the Great could write that " amor ipse notitia est ", love is itself a kind of knowledge possessed of its own logic. William of Saint-Thierry, in the Middle Ages, follows this tradition when he comments on the verse of the Song of Songs where the lover says to the beloved, "Your eyes are doves" Song This discovery of love as a source of knowledge, which is part of the primordial experience of every man and woman, finds authoritative expression in the biblical understanding of faith.
In savouring the love by which God chose them and made them a people, Israel came to understand the overall unity of the divine plan. That is why, in the Bible, truth and fidelity go together: the true God is the God of fidelity who keeps his promises and makes possible, in time, a deeper understanding of his plan. Through the experience of the prophets, in the pain of exile and in the hope of a definitive return to the holy city, Israel came to see that this divine "truth" extended beyond the confines of its own history, to embrace the entire history of the world, beginning with creation.
Faith-knowledge sheds light not only on the destiny of one particular people, but the entire history of the created world, from its origins to its consummation. Precisely because faith-knowledge is linked to the covenant with a faithful God who enters into a relationship of love with man and speaks his word to him, the Bible presents it as a form of hearing; it is associated with the sense of hearing. Saint Paul would use a formula which became classic: fides ex auditu , "faith comes from hearing" Rom Knowledge linked to a word is always personal knowledge; it recognizes the voice of the one speaking, opens up to that person in freedom and follows him or her in obedience.
Paul could thus speak of the "obedience of faith" cf. Rom ; The experience of hearing can thus help to bring out more clearly the bond between knowledge and love. At times, where knowledge of the truth is concerned, hearing has been opposed to sight; it has been claimed that an emphasis on sight was characteristic of Greek culture. If light makes possible that contemplation of the whole to which humanity has always aspired, it would also seem to leave no space for freedom, since it comes down from heaven directly to the eye, without calling for a response.
It would also seem to call for a kind of static contemplation, far removed from the world of history with its joys and sufferings. From this standpoint, the biblical understanding of knowledge would be antithetical to the Greek understanding, inasmuch as the latter linked knowledge to sight in its attempt to attain a comprehensive understanding of reality. This alleged antithesis does not, however, correspond to the biblical datum. The ground was thus laid for a dialogue with Hellenistic culture, a dialogue present at the heart of sacred Scripture.
Hearing emphasizes personal vocation and obedience, and the fact that truth is revealed in time. For the Fourth Gospel, to believe is both to hear and to see. Jn ; it is a hearing which calls for discipleship, as was the case with the first disciples: "Hearing him say these things, they followed Jesus" Jn But faith is also tied to sight.
Seeing the signs which Jesus worked leads at times to faith, as in the case of the Jews who, following the raising of Lazarus, "having seen what he did, believed in him" Jn At other times, faith itself leads to deeper vision: "If you believe, you will see the glory of God" Jn In the end, belief and sight intersect: "Whoever believes in me believes in him who sent me.
And whoever sees me sees him who sent me" Jn Joined to hearing, seeing then becomes a form of following Christ, and faith appears as a process of gazing, in which our eyes grow accustomed to peering into the depths. Easter morning thus passes from John who, standing in the early morning darkness before the empty tomb, "saw and believed" Jn , to Mary Magdalene who, after seeing Jesus cf. Jn and wanting to cling to him, is asked to contemplate him as he ascends to the Father, and finally to her full confession before the disciples: "I have seen the Lord!
How does one attain this synthesis between hearing and seeing? It becomes possible through the person of Christ himself, who can be seen and heard. He is the Word made flesh, whose glory we have seen cf. The light of faith is the light of a countenance in which the Father is seen. In the Fourth Gospel, the truth which faith attains is the revelation of the Father in the Son, in his flesh and in his earthly deeds, a truth which can be defined as the "light-filled life" of Jesus.
The truth which faith discloses to us is a truth centred on an encounter with Christ, on the contemplation of his life and on the awareness of his presence. It was only in this way, by taking flesh, by sharing our humanity, that the knowledge proper to love could come to full fruition. For the light of love is born when our hearts are touched and we open ourselves to the interior presence of the beloved, who enables us to recognize his mystery. Thus we can understand why, together with hearing and seeing, Saint John can speak of faith as touch, as he says in his First Letter: "What we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes and touched with our hands, concerning the word of life" 1 Jn By his taking flesh and coming among us, Jesus has touched us, and through the sacraments he continues to touch us even today; transforming our hearts, he unceasingly enables us to acknowledge and acclaim him as the Son of God.
In faith, we can touch him and receive the power of his grace. Saint Augustine, commenting on the account of the woman suffering from haemorrhages who touched Jesus and was cured cf. Lk , says: "To touch him with our hearts: that is what it means to believe". Only when we are configured to Jesus do we receive the eyes needed to see him. Each of us comes to the light because of love, and each of us is called to love in order to remain in the light.
Desirous of illumining all reality with the love of God made manifest in Jesus, and seeking to love others with that same love, the first Christians found in the Greek world, with its thirst for truth, an ideal partner in dialogue. The encounter of the Gospel message with the philosophical culture of the ancient world proved a decisive step in the evangelization of all peoples, and stimulated a fruitful interaction between faith and reason which has continued down the centuries to our own times.
That fact that our human loves contain that ray of light also helps us to see how all love is meant to share in the complete self-gift of the Son of God for our sake. In this circular movement, the light of faith illumines all our human relationships, which can then be lived in union with the gentle love of Christ. In the life of Saint Augustine we find a significant example of this process whereby reason, with its desire for truth and clarity, was integrated into the horizon of faith and thus gained new understanding.
Augustine accepted the Greek philosophy of light, with its insistence on the importance of sight. His encounter with Neoplatonism introduced him to the paradigm of the light which, descending from on high to illumine all reality, is a symbol of God. This realization liberated him from his earlier Manichaeism, which had led him to think that good and evil were in constant conflict, confused and intertwined.
The realization that God is light provided Augustine with a new direction in life and enabled him to acknowledge his sinfulness and to turn towards the good. In the garden, he heard a voice telling him: "Take and read".
He then took up the book containing the epistles of Saint Paul and started to read the thirteenth chapter of the Letter to the Romans. Yet this encounter with the God who speaks did not lead Augustine to reject light and seeing. Thus Augustine developed a philosophy of light capable of embracing both the reciprocity proper to the word and the freedom born of looking to the light. Just as the word calls for a free response, so the light finds a response in the image which reflects it. Augustine can therefore associate hearing and seeing, and speak of "the word which shines forth within".
Yet our longing for the vision of the whole, and not merely of fragments of history, remains and will be fulfilled in the end, when, as Augustine says, we will see and we will love. The light of love proper to faith can illumine the questions of our own time about truth. Truth nowadays is often reduced to the subjective authenticity of the individual, valid only for the life of the individual.
A common truth intimidates us, for we identify it with the intransigent demands of totalitarian systems. But if truth is a truth of love, if it is a truth disclosed in personal encounter with the Other and with others, then it can be set free from its enclosure in individuals and become part of the common good. As a truth of love, it is not one that can be imposed by force; it is not a truth that stifles the individual. Since it is born of love, it can penetrate to the heart, to the personal core of each man and woman. Clearly, then, faith is not intransigent, but grows in respectful coexistence with others.
One who believes may not be presumptuous; on the contrary, truth leads to humility, since believers know that, rather than ourselves possessing truth, it is truth which embraces and possesses us. Far from making us inflexible, the security of faith sets us on a journey; it enables witness and dialogue with all. Nor is the light of faith, joined to the truth of love, extraneous to the material world, for love is always lived out in body and spirit; the light of faith is an incarnate light radiating from the luminous life of Jesus.
It also illumines the material world, trusts its inherent order and knows that it calls us to an ever widening path of harmony and understanding. The gaze of science thus benefits from faith: faith encourages the scientist to remain constantly open to reality in all its inexhaustible richness. Faith awakens the critical sense by preventing research from being satisfied with its own formulae and helps it to realize that nature is always greater. By stimulating wonder before the profound mystery of creation, faith broadens the horizons of reason to shed greater light on the world which discloses itself to scientific investigation.
The light of faith in Jesus also illumines the path of all those who seek God, and makes a specifically Christian contribution to dialogue with the followers of the different religions. The Letter to the Hebrews speaks of the witness of those just ones who, before the covenant with Abraham, already sought God in faith. Of Enoch "it was attested that he had pleased God" Heb , something impossible apart from faith, for "whoever would approach God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him" Heb We can see from this that the path of religious man passes through the acknowledgment of a God who cares for us and is not impossible to find.
What other reward can God give to those who seek him, if not to let himself be found? Even earlier, we encounter Abel, whose faith was praised and whose gifts, his offering of the firstlings of his flock cf. Heb , were therefore pleasing to God. Religious man strives to see signs of God in the daily experiences of life, in the cycle of the seasons, in the fruitfulness of the earth and in the movement of the cosmos.
God is light and he can be found also by those who seek him with a sincere heart. An image of this seeking can be seen in the Magi, who were led to Bethlehem by the star cf. Mt Religious man is a wayfarer; he must be ready to let himself be led, to come out of himself and to find the God of perpetual surprises. Because faith is a way, it also has to do with the lives of those men and women who, though not believers, nonetheless desire to believe and continue to seek.
To the extent that they are sincerely open to love and set out with whatever light they can find, they are already, even without knowing it, on the path leading to faith. Since faith is a light, it draws us into itself, inviting us to explore ever more fully the horizon which it illumines, all the better to know the object of our love. Christian theology is born of this desire. It follows that theology is more than simply an effort of human reason to analyze and understand, along the lines of the experimental sciences.
God cannot be reduced to an object. He is a subject who makes himself known and perceived in an interpersonal relationship. Right faith orients reason to open itself to the light which comes from God, so that reason, guided by love of the truth, can come to a deeper knowledge of God.
It is not just our discourse about God, but first and foremost the acceptance and the pursuit of a deeper understanding of the word which God speaks to us, the word which God speaks about himself, for he is an eternal dialogue of communion, and he allows us to enter into this dialogue. Theology also shares in the ecclesial form of faith; its light is the light of the believing subject which is the Church. This implies, on the one hand, that theology must be at the service of the faith of Christians, that it must work humbly to protect and deepen the faith of everyone, especially ordinary believers.
On the other hand, because it draws its life from faith, theology cannot consider the magisterium of the Pope and the bishops in communion with him as something extrinsic, a limitation of its freedom, but rather as one of its internal, constitutive dimensions, for the magisterium ensures our contact with the primordial source and thus provides the certainty of attaining to the word of Christ in all its integrity. Since faith is hearing and seeing, it is also handed on as word and light.
Addressing the Corinthians, Saint Paul used these two very images. The word, once accepted, becomes a response, a confession of faith, which spreads to others and invites them to believe. Paul also uses the image of light: "All of us, with unveiled faces, seeing the glory of the Lord as though reflected in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image" 2 Cor The light of Christ shines, as in a mirror, upon the face of Christians; as it spreads, it comes down to us, so that we too can share in that vision and reflect that light to others, in the same way that, in the Easter liturgy, the light of the paschal candle lights countless other candles.
Faith is passed on, we might say, by contact, from one person to another, just as one candle is lighted from another. Christians, in their poverty, plant a seed so rich that it becomes a great tree, capable of filling the world with its fruit. The transmission of the faith not only brings light to men and women in every place; it travels through time, passing from one generation to another.
Because faith is born of an encounter which takes place in history and lights up our journey through time, it must be passed on in every age. It is through an unbroken chain of witnesses that we come to see the face of Jesus. But how is this possible? How can we be certain, after all these centuries, that we have encountered the "real Jesus"?
Were we merely isolated individuals, were our starting point simply our own individual ego seeking in itself the basis of absolutely sure knowledge, a certainty of this sort would be impossible. I cannot possibly verify for myself something which happened so long ago. But this is not the only way we attain knowledge. Persons always live in relationship. We come from others, we belong to others, and our lives are enlarged by our encounter with others. Even our own knowledge and self-awareness are relational; they are linked to others who have gone before us: in the first place, our parents, who gave us our life and our name.
Language itself, the words by which we make sense of our lives and the world around us, comes to us from others, preserved in the living memory of others. Self-knowledge is only possible when we share in a greater memory. The same thing holds true for faith, which brings human understanding to its fullness. The Church is a Mother who teaches us to speak the language of faith. Saint John brings this out in his Gospel by closely uniting faith and memory and associating both with the working of the Holy Spirit, who, as Jesus says, "will remind you of all that I have said to you" Jn The love which is the Holy Spirit and which dwells in the Church unites every age and makes us contemporaries of Jesus, thus guiding us along our pilgrimage of faith.
It is impossible to believe on our own. By its very nature, faith is open to the "We" of the Church; it always takes place within her communion. We are reminded of this by the dialogical format of the creed used in the baptismal liturgy. Our belief is expressed in response to an invitation, to a word which must be heard and which is not my own; it exists as part of a dialogue and cannot be merely a profession originating in an individual. We can respond in the singular — "I believe" — only because we are part of a greater fellowship, only because we also say "We believe".
Here we see why those who believe are never alone, and why faith tends to spread, as it invites others to share in its joy. Those who receive faith discover that their horizons expand as new and enriching relationships come to life.
Tertullian puts this well when he describes the catechumens who, "after the cleansing which gives new birth" are welcomed into the house of their mother and, as part of a new family, pray the Our Father together with their brothers and sisters. The Church, like every family, passes on to her children the whole store of her memories. But how does this come about in a way that nothing is lost, but rather everything in the patrimony of faith comes to be more deeply understood?
It is through the apostolic Tradition preserved in the Church with the assistance of the Holy Spirit that we enjoy a living contact with the foundational memory. What was handed down by the apostles — as the Second Vatican Council states — "comprises everything that serves to make the people of God live their lives in holiness and increase their faith. In this way the Church, in her doctrine, life and worship, perpetuates and transmits to every generation all that she herself is, all that she believes". Faith, in fact, needs a setting in which it can be witnessed to and communicated, a means which is suitable and proportionate to what is communicated.
For transmitting a purely doctrinal content, an idea might suffice, or perhaps a book, or the repetition of a spoken message. But what is communicated in the Church, what is handed down in her living Tradition, is the new light born of an encounter with the true God, a light which touches us at the core of our being and engages our minds, wills and emotions, opening us to relationships lived in communion. There is a special means for passing down this fullness, a means capable of engaging the entire person, body and spirit, interior life and relationships with others. The sacraments communicate an incarnate memory, linked to the times and places of our lives, linked to all our senses; in them the whole person is engaged as a member of a living subject and part of a network of communitarian relationships.
While the sacraments are indeed sacraments of faith,  it can also be said that faith itself possesses a sacramental structure. The awakening of faith is linked to the dawning of a new sacramental sense in our lives as human beings and as Christians, in which visible and material realities are seen to point beyond themselves to the mystery of the eternal.
The transmission of faith occurs first and foremost in baptism. Some might think that baptism is merely a way of symbolizing the confession of faith, a pedagogical tool for those who require images and signs, while in itself ultimately unnecessary. An observation of Saint Paul about baptism reminds us that this is not the case.
Paul states that "we were buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life" Rom In baptism we receive both a teaching to be professed and a specific way of life which demands the engagement of the whole person and sets us on the path to goodness. Ogni tempesta ria in te s'acquieta, e vien da te mia luce. PERCY: I see you unhappy, and my anger has an end; you see my brow furrowed with sorrow: I pardon you for it: I feel that close to you, I could forget the anguish of the past as the shipwrecked pilot forgets the billows when he reaches the shore.
Every cruel tempest calms itself near you and from you comes my light. ANNA: Misero e quale speme or ti seduce? Non sai che moglie son, che son Regina? ANNA: Wretch, what hope now seduces you? E non t'aborre il Re? To me you are Anna, only Anna, and am I not your same Riccardo who loved you for so long, who first taught you to love? PERCY: S'ei t'aborre, io t'amo ancora qual t'amava in basso stato; meco oblia di sposo ingrato il disprezzo ed il rigor. ANNA: Ah! Let it find me a corpse under the ground and yet with you. Cerca altrove un cor contento cui non sia delitto amar.
From pity for my fear, for the horror in which you see me give way to my please, to my tears give way; earth and sea divide us. Presso a te mi fia contento il soffrir ed il penar. PERCY: At your feet, pierced and dead I will fall if you ask for it but grant only that I remain and sigh Near to you , suffering and pain are contentment to me. ANNA: risoluta Parti, il voglio; alcun potria ascoltarti in queste mura. Sia questa mia risposta al tuo giurar. Let this be my reply to your oath. ANNA: letting out a cry Ah! What are you doing!
Pitiless man. Vogliono scagliarsi uno contro l'altro. They want to throw themselves at each other. ANNA: Deh! Giunge alcuno ANNA: Alas! Stop…I am lost. Someone is coming…I can bear no more. Destre armate in queste porte! In mia reggia nudi acciar! Hands bearing weapons within these portals! Drawn swords in my palace! Alla voce del Re accorrono i cortigiani, le dame, i paggi ed i soldati. Indi Giovanna Seymour. At the voice of the King, courtiers, ladies, pages and soldiers come running.
Later Giovanna Seymour. What to do? What misdeed is taking place here? I read in your countenance that my shame is complete: the whole kingdom is witness that she has betrayed the King. I swear it at your feet. So expert already at betrayal, O youth? Del suo fiero tradimento ecco il vero accusator. Behold the true accuser of his bold betrayal. ANNA: Ove son! O mio signor! Tacciono tutti, abbassano gli occhi. Oh my lord! Recovers herself, approaches Henry: he is fuming. All are silent and lower their eyes. Stamped on these faces I see your suspicion; but I ask for mercy, do not condemn me, O King.
Let this oppressed heart recover itself for a bit. Il lacrimar non giova; fuggi lontan da me. Tears won't help; depart far from me. It would be better for you now if you were able to die. Un mio rival felice! Tutta ti sfoga adesso, ira del fato, in me. A rival in him. A rival of mine happy! And the deceiver wanted to banish me from her? Let all the wrath of fate be poured out on you, in me now.
Spense il mio nero eccesso ogni virtude in me. Is not my heart as if overtaken by horror, by ice? My black excesses extinguished every virtue in me. Poter morire adesso meglio saria per me. I myself have ruined her, I have intensified her misfortune! The day turns to darkness for me. I can barely stand up. It would be better for me if I could die now.
Non io, sol denno i giudici la tua discolpa udir. Not I, the judges alone should hear your excuses. My fate is sealed, if the one who accuses me is the one who condemns me. I will succumb to the power of such a tyrannical law. But after my death I will one day be exculpated and absolved.
I will feel sorry for your death but I will still give you death. My fate is sealed; every attempt to escape it is vain. No skill on earth or human strength can allay it now. Death is already in my heart and I'm not even dead yet. CORO: Ah! By how many adverse evil fates is the English throne afflicted. A more deadly one has not descended on it than that which has broken forth here. Innocence has the death here which sin plotted. Act 2 Top Act 1. An entrance hall which leads to Anna's rooms and to a room where the Counsel is gathered with guards at the entrance.
CORO: Oh! Ma noi per sempre, o misera, sempre con te saremo. Seymour, Seymour herself has distanced herself from her. But we will always be with you, unhappy girl. Either your triumph or your ultimate disaster prepares itself: Fate has left you few hearts but they are tender ones. Behold her…afflicted and pale, she drags her feet wearily.
Esce Anna. Tutte le vanno intorno. Ella siede. Anna e detti, indi Hervey con soldati. Enter Anna.
Ho un bernoccolo in fronte
All gather around her. She sits. Anna and above. Hervey with soldiers. CORO: Regina! Take heart, put your faith in Heaven, let tears be banished, virtue cannot die. In terra non v'ha riparo per la mia ruina. Hervey esce Che rechi Hervey? ANNA: O my faithful ones, o the only ones who remain as consolation to me in my misfortune, every hope, it is true, is placed in Heaven and in it alone…On earth there is no remedy for my ruin.
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Hervey enters What do you carry, Hervey? Duolmi l'amaro incarco a cui m'elegge il Consiglio de' Pari. He will require so much from my wounded heart. Dell'innocenza mia voi testimoni siate, teneri amici. ANNA: I needs must bow my head to the royal will, whatsoever it might be. Be you the witnesses of my innocence tender friends.
ANNA: abbracciandoli Andate. Partono con Hervey. ANNA: embracing them Go. ANNA: partiti i servi alza le mani al cielo, si prostra e dice. Dio che mi vedi in core, mi volgo a te Se meritai quest'onta giudica tu. ANNA: after the servants have left she raises her hands to Heaven, kneels and says.
God who sees within my heart, I turn to you…judge you if I deserve this shame. ANNA: Seymour Non mi obliasti tu? Che veggio? A me tu rechi nuova sventura forse? ANNA: Seymour…returned to me! Have you not forgotten me? Arise…What do I see? You are pale! Are you trembling?
Are you bringing me new misfortune perhaps? Gioia poss'io recarvi? Tali son trame ordite, che perduta voi siete. Ad ogni costo vuol franti il Re gli sciagurati nodi che vi stringono a lui La vita almeno JANE: Dreadful…extreme! Could I give you joy? The trap is thus laid that you are lost. At any cost the King wants to shatter the unfortunate knots that bind you to him… your life at least… if not your royal name, alas, save your life at least!
Pur dirlo io deggio. Il confessarvi rea, dal Re vi scioglie e vi sottragge a morte. Confessing yourself to be guilty will unbind you from the King and rescue you from death.
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JANE: The fate which pursues you, leaves no other means of escape to you. Regina, oh ciel, cedete Ve ne consiglia il Re JANE: Do you wish infamy and death? Queen, oh Heavens, give in… The King advises you to do it…the wretched woman who Henry has destined for the throne implores you.
ANNA: Oh! La conosci? Viltade alla Regina sua! Who is this woman? Do you know her? Was she so impudent as to advise me to villainy? Villainy to her Queen! Speak: who is she? ANNA: E tal facea me stessa. Sul suo capo aggravi un Dio il suo braccio punitore. ANNA: And she is doing this to me. Let God place on her head his punishing arm. ANNA: Sia di spine la corona ambita al crine; crescendo con furore.
Giovanna a poco a poco si smarrisce sul guancial del regio letto sia la veglia ed il sospetto Fra lei sorga e il reo suo sposo il mio spettro minaccioso ANNA: Let the crown with which she coveted for her head be of thorns; in growing fury. Jane little by little is bewildered let watchfulness and suspicion lie on the pillow of the royal bed….
JANE: A cruel sentence! I feel like I'm dying… Ah! Alas, have pity, pity…on me! Anna a poco a poco intenerisce Inesperta Amo Enrico, e ne ho rossore Anna, little by little, softens Inexperienced…enticed… I was seduced and dazzled… I love Henry…and it embarrasses me… My torture is this love… I groan and weep, and yet love is not smothered by my tears. ANNA: Sorgi! ANNA: Get up! In this farewell there remains to you my love and my pity. Anna rientra nelle sue stanze.
Giovanna parte afflittissima.
Azioni da intraprendere
There a great God awaits me who will punish the sin. This farewell is the first of the torments which he gives me. Anna goes back into her rooms. Jane leaves greatly afflicted. He's been enclosed with them for a whole hour. Si aprono le porte, esce Hervey. ALL: Ah! Heaven prevent the weak and inexperienced heart from letting itself be either seduced or overcome by hope or by fear; let it never allow him to forget that the accuser is the King.
The doors open, enter Hervey. She is lost. The first blow has descended; the one who stuck it hides himself. Ella si appressa.
- La traviata libretto (English/Italian) - opera by Giuseppe Verdi!
- Lumen Fidei (29 June ) | Francis!
- Aprils Lady A Novel;
HENRY: The blind boy returns to his prison, and he still believes, since the hour of my vengeance has been suspended, that he has saved the life of Anna. Let her come forward. Anna e Percy da parte opposta in mezzo alle guardie. Enrico ed Hervey. Anna and Percy from opposite ends between guards.
Enrico and Hervey. Henry wants to leave; she approaches with dignity Stop…and hear me. ANNA: A' piedi tuoi mi prostro. Svenami tu, ma non espormi, o Sire, all'onta d'un giudizio: il regio nome, fa che in me si rispetti. ANNA: I prostrate myself at your feet. Slay me yourself but don't exhibit me, O Sire, to the shame of judgement: ensure that my royal name is respected. Moglie d'Enrico ad un Percy scendevi. The wife of Henry to descend to a Percy. PERCY: che si era tirato in disparte a queste parole s'a vanza E su di questo dispregiato Percy non isdegnasti farti rivale PERCY: who had drawn apart, at these words comes forward and yet you didn't disdain to make this despised Percy your rival… and take his lover from him.
Giuro per quello La canzone inoltre non fu mai pubblicata come singolo, ma rimase semplicemente una traccia, relativamente oscura nell'album No Dice , fino al momento in cui non venne registrata da Harry Nilsson. La sua versione, pubblicata come singolo, rimase alla vetta della Billboard Hot per quattro settimane dal 13 febbraio all'11 marzo Il singolo rimase inoltre per cinque settimane in vetta alla Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks. Nel Regno Unito , la canzone rimase in vetta alla Official Singles Chart , dall'11 marzo per cinque settimane, e vendette quasi , copie.
Anche in Australia arriva primo per cinque settimane, in Irlanda per tre settimane ed in Nuova Zelanda per due settimane. Nel corso degli anni Without You ha ricevuto numerosissime cover , diventando in qualche modo un moderno standard musicale.